International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) is an ad hoc tribunal established by Security Council resolution 827, adopted on May 25 th 1993. The tribunal was established to address the serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1991, and as a response to the threat to international peace and security posed by those serious violations. To achieve this, the Tribunal has the authority to prosecute grave breaches of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, violations of the laws or customs of war, genocide and crimes against humanity.
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is an ad hoc tribunal established by Security Council Resolution 955, adopted on November 8 th 1994. The tribunal was established to address crimes committed by Rwandans in the territory of Rwanda and in the territory of neighbouring States, as well as non-Rwandan citizens for crimes committed in Rwanda in 1994. To achieve this, the Tribunal has the authority to prosecute genocide, crimes against humanity, violations to article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and to Additional Protocol II.
International Criminal Court
The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court on July 17 th 1998, when 120 States adopted the Statute. The Statute entered into force on July 1 st 2002. The court is the first ever permanent, international criminal court, created to promote the rule of law and ensure that the gravest international crimes are punished. It will have jurisdiction with respect to the crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, all of which are fully defined in the Statute. The ICC will have jurisdiction over the crime of aggression, once a suitable definition is developed and adopted by States Parties.
International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations which sits in the Hague. It was established in 1946 to replace the Permanent Court of International Justice. The ICJ's statutes are entrenched within the Charter of the United Nations and set a dual role for the court: to settle in accordance with international law the legal disputes submitted to it by States, and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by duly authorized international organs and agencies.